A self-balancing robot is an intrinsically unstable system that is based on an inverted pendulum design.
Unlike conventional 4 wheel or 4 legged mobile robots that consume a lot of space, two wheel self- balancing robots consume less space and have several other advantages which include: movement on zero radius curve, high tolerant to impulsive force, small foot print to move on dangerous places, and greater stability over slopes. As such, commercial products such as the Segway have been developed.
Besides the development of Segway, studies of two-wheel self-balancing robots have been widely reported. For example, that is used for radio control, made by Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Switzerland and nBot are both early versions complete with on-vehicle microcontrollers.
There has also been active research on the control design for such platforms, including classical and linear multivariable control methods nonlinear back stepping controls and Fuzzy Adaptive PID Control . In this project, a model of a self-balancing robot was developed to understand the effectiveness of the PID control algorithm.